Vai y kien tan man ve bao lut Viet Nam

 

 

I. Tan man:

Ch con gan 2 thang na la nhan loai se on chao nam 2000 vi nhng le

hoi tng bng nhat ma bao nhieu ngi ang ron rp chuan b to chc quy mo

to ln cha tng thay. The ma Viet Nam que toi lai chm trong bao lut ln

nhat the kyvi nhng mat mat ngay cang tang len cho ngi dan ngheo

mien Trung Viet Nam. Mi 2 nam trc ay, vao em 2 rang sang 3/11/97,

cn bao so 5 (con mang ten Linda) a ap vao tan pha cac tnh ven bien Nam

Viet va cc Nam Trung Viet, khien 445 ngi chet, 3.406 ngi mat tch, 857

ngi b thng, thiet hai vat chat len tren 5569 t ong Viet Nam(theo thong

ke chnh thc cua Nha Nc). Bao lut nam nay (tnh en ngay 7/11/99) a

gay thiet hai tren 718 ty ong Viet Nam, 522 ngi chet, 95 ngi mat tch,

18 ngi b thng, 604.204 nha o troi, 5723 lp hoc va 1746 benh xa h

sap, 63.226 ha ruong lua ngap ung, 115 cau cong sap troi,etc... (bao Thanh

Nien, 7/11/99).

Moi ngi, trong lan ngoai nc, o xo quyen gop cu tr trong tinh than "La

lanh um la rach" khan cap that ang khen va cam ong. Mot ban tre cht

hoi toi: "Tai sao nam nao nc mnh cung b bao lut vay ha anh ? Co cach

nao ngan nga hay han che tac hai ve ngi va tai san do bao lutgay ra

khong ?" Cau hoi cua ban o khien toi suy ngh that nhieu. Toi cung muon

cau Tri Phat sao cho ngi Viet Nam chung toi tm ra li giai e thay v c

i quyen gop cu tr th chung toi co the lam cach nao o e d phong va

han che toi a tac hai cua nhng thien tai nay. Viet Nam a co biet bao

chuyen vien tai gioi, lng danh, tot nghiep t nhieu trng ai hoc noi tieng

cua the gii nhng sao khong co ai ngh en van e nay nh ? Co le v khong

em lai nhieu tien bac, danh li... nen cha co ai chu quan tam nghien cu

chang ? Co le v co nhieu e tai "v ai" hn nen cac nha bac hoc Viet Nam

khong them oai hoai en van e nay chang ? Hay v Viet Nam khong co

kha nang chuyen mon trong lanh vc nay, khong u kha nang tai chanh,

phng tien lan kinh nghiem x ly(?) tren pham vi vi mo lan v mo? The la

ong bao cua chung ta c phai ngam ngui hat mai iep khuc : "Tri hanh

cn lut moi nam..."

Trong pham vi hieu biet rat han hep cua mnh, toi xin phep c trnh bay

oi ieu vi ngi ban tre ve chuyen bao lut nc ta.

Xet ve v tr a ly th Viet Nam nam trong vung ap thap nhiet i nen ben

canh lng ma ln hang nam, nc ta con nhan them rat nhieu nc t

nhng cn bao nhiet i ma trung tam bao (con goi la "mat bao") thng

nam trong vung bien Phi Luat Tan. Hnh the nc ta tuy trai dai tren nhieu v

o nhng rat hep ve be ngang (nhat la vung Trung Viet) vi oi nui co o

doc cao nen nc se trut thang xuong vung ong bang ven bien, de tao ra lu

lut ln vi nhng tran cuong lu khung khiep tan pha d doi hn neu nh oi

nui tr trui, khong con rng cay kem ham sc nc, hay khong co kenh ao

thoat lu. Chnh nan pha rng ba bai a gop phan tang them tac hai cua bao

lut. Bao nhieu kenh ao t nhng cong tac thuy li khong c nghien cu

ky lng, tuy tien, vo to chc trong nhng nam au sau 30/4/75 cung gop

phan ho tr them cho lu lut, ngap man va pha hoai moi sinh. La mot nc

ngheo, dan ong ma lanh ao lai thieu sang suot th hau qua cua thien tai

khong nhng khong c d phong nham han che tac hai ma con gia trong

them nhieu hn khi cac quan chc a phng lan trung ng het sc vo trach

nhiem, coi thng mang song nhan dan va tai san cua ho, tham ch "tha

nc uc tha cau" nham t t t li ch khong tan tam tan sc cu dan.

Thang 11/97, toi co mat tai Viet Nam sau cn bao so 5. Nhng nhom cu tr

t nguyen cua ba con trong nc a to ra het sc sot sang, nang ong, co

hieu qua hn la nhng to chc chnh quyen hay quoc te (cu the laHoi Hong

Thap T). Ho la nhng thanh nien, sinh vien, hoc sinh, cong nhan, giao

chc...; gia, tre, nam, n...; thuoc nhieu ton giao khac nhau nhng cung cat

lc lam viec t thien, co mat tc thi, bat ke gian nan, nguy hiem, en vi

nan nhan bang tam long va ch co "cho" ch khong oi hoi hay mu o g

ca. Toi that s kham phuc ho t nhng ngay thang o. Toi cung a nghe mot

anh ban KTS thao thao ve nhng mo hnh trng hoc va nha dan dung thiet

ke nham han che tac hai cua bao t kinh nghiem mot vai nc A Chau khac

va ca mien Nam Viet Nam trc ay. Toi co hoi anh: Tai sao anh khong viet

va trnh bay lai cho chnh quyen biet e dan c nh ? Anh ci ma lac au

nguay nguay. T o, toi tr ve tm tai lieu tham khao trong cac th vien, tm

tai lieu tren mang (search tren net) va hnh thanh mot so khai niem bc au

cho e tai nay. Tuy nhien toi can c gop y, sa cha, bo tuc them t

nhng ngi co kinh nghiem va hieu biet hn trong lanh vc nay. Xin c

trnh bay hom nay nh la phac thao cho viec thiet ke nha & trng hoc

vung thng b bao nh Viet Nam chung ta.

Trc het phai tm hieu nguyen nhan va tam hoat ong cua bao v co hieu ro

bao th mi co the d phong hu hieu va co the giam toi a tac hai do bao

gay ra. Trach nhiem nghien cu o thuoc ve Trung tam Kh Tng & Thuy

Van nhng ro rang la kha nang thong tin ve viec phong bao cua Viet Nam

hay con qua kem hieu qua, neu khong muon noi la t tren xuong di eu

coi thng cong tac thong tin & d bao kh tng -thuy van - phong bao lut.

ay la van e can cai thien trc nhat. Dan Viet Nam song trong bao lut

bay lau nay nhng kinh nghiem a khong c rut ta thanh bai hoc e ng

dung trong cong tac phong bao lut va cap cu sao cho kp thi, hieu qua va

cung khong he thay ai nghien cu e e ra bien phap nao kha d kha hn

nham tranh bt i viec lap i lap lai mai mot tham kch bi at dien ra hang

nam nh vay. Ngay nh cac nha a ly a chat a ve c watershed va

ng nc tran (ke ca cuong lu) t tren nui o xuong nhng khong thay

ng dung vao viec quy hoach sao cho c dan nhng a phng o tranh

c lu lut ? Ly thuyet a khong c ng dung hu hieu vao i song du

nha trng luon keu goi hoc sinh rang "hoc phai i oi vi hanh" ?!? Khong

the o tha cho viec thieu hut ngan sach mai c khi ma so tien dung vao

cu tr va nhng thiet hai nhan mang lan tai san hang nam a len qua cao.

a en luc nghiem chnh rut ta kinh nghiem, nghien cu that khoa hoc van

e e phong bao lut nh mot quoc sach va kp thi pho bien rong rai e giao

duc dan chung. Chuyen dung tung cho bon pha rng buon go lau a qua ro

rang nen chnh nhng ngi lanh ao cap cao nhat phai co cau tra li on

thoa cho nhng gia nh nan nhan bao lut, cu the la nhng chnh sach triet e

va nhat quan trong viec bao ve rng au nguon, rng nguyen sinh, bao ve

moi sinh va tham thc vat hien hu. Khong the v dan ngheo oi ma lam ng

cho nhng ke lam bay c tai pham chnh sach ve rng. Viec phu xanh kn

mat at nham chong xoi mon (erosion control) van cha c quan tam ung

mc, nhat la vung oi nui, ven bien, doc theo cac quoc lo nen nhieu a

phng van coi chuyen at chuoi (land slides), at l, at sup... van la

"chuyen khong co g am " e phai trong cay co phu xanh mat at, nhat la

nhng ni doc ng (2:1 hay 1:1); ch en khi nc chay tran cuon cuon gay

ra tham hoa th lai la lang e xin cu tr ! T o phai neu cau hoi: vai tro va

trach nhiem cua tr thc, cac chuyen vien KHKT Viet Nam trong van e

nay. Ho a lam g ? a nghien cu va rut ra kinh nghiem g e cu dan ? Ho

khong the c khoanh tay o toi cho Thien Tai hay nc ngheo, khong phng

tien va kinh nghiem x ly ung mc. Chnh quyen nen cham dt ngay loi

"quan ly" het sc om om, bao bien trong viec thu gom, phan phat cac pham

vat cu tr, nhat la phai x ly ky luat nghiem khac viec mot so "sau mot" co

tnh "an ban" va ca mot so quan chc a phng co tnh can tr, gay kho

khan cho cac oan cu tr trong thi iem khan cap. Hay huy dong sc dan

e cu dan !

 

Van e phong bao lut va cu cap phai la chuyen chung cua nhieu c quan

ket hp ong bo th kha nang hoat ong mi co the hu hieu. Cho nen can

co Ban Ch ao Trung ng hoat ong co ke hoach, to chc chat che, phoi

hp nhp nhang, theo doi sat sao moi dien bien phc tap ch khong the e

mac a phng tuy tien, linh ong ng pho. Chnh t s kien bao so 5/ Linda

nam 97, toi c ngh Viet Nam a rut c nhng bai hoc quy gia nhng trong

cn "hong thuy the ky" nam nay, dng nh van cha kha hn la bao ? Vi

thien tai nh bao lut, cai approach thch hp nhat la e ra nhng bien phap

e "oi pho" va "d phong" kp thi, khong phai la "chong" v khong co

cach nao e chong lai thien tai ca! (du cho la My, Nga, Nhat, Tau... cung

anh bo tay chu tran thoi !) Muc ch cua cac bien phap nay chnh la e

giam thieu thiet hai ve sinh mang va tai san, d phong nhng bien phap cu

tr sau o cho hu hieu, cap thi. Co nhieu bien phap t de en kho, t t ton

kem en ton kem rat nhieu nhng vi mien Trung Viet th t ra cung phai bao

gom nhng iem nh sau:

 

a. Thiet lap mot Trung Tam Tien oan Bao Lut (ni thch hp nhat co le la

a Nang) vi dung cu thch hp e co the toi thieu theo doi va thong bao

kp thi ng di chuyen, cng o bao, va c tnh lng nc ma(Neu

c tnh c mc nc lut th cang hay). oi hoi phng tien, trang thiet b

hien ai va chuyen vien c tu nghiep hang nam.

b. Thiet lap nhng Trung Tam Tam Tru An Toan, nhat la cac tnh mien

Trung, ng nhien la cho cao va chac chan, e khi c thong bao, ong

bao co the tap trung en nhng a iem o. Nhng Trung Tam nay phai co

u phng tien (thc pham, nc uong, thuoc men, ve sinh,...) e phuc vu cho

ong bao trong mot thi gian an nh. oi hoi kha nang tai chanh, phng

tien va quan ly tot (to chc chat che, can bo khong tham nhung, co long v

dan).

c. Thiet lap mot ke hoach khan cap (emergency plan) e co the kp thi

thong bao cho ong bao vung b bao lut e doa, cung cap phng tien

chuyen ch ong bao en cac Trung Tam Tam Tru An Toan, va cap cu

ong bao con ket lai trong cac vung b thien tai. oi hoi s ket hp vi quan

oi, cong an va bo giao thong van tai cung nhieu c quan khac ho tr.

d. Thuc ay viec xay cat nha trong vung thng b bao lut co sc chu ng

cao qua viec khuyen khch hoac an nh cac quy cach ve xay cat (building

codes) va dung vat lieu nang nh be tong, ngoi moc,v.v... (xin xem phan 2:

quy hoach & xay dng vung bao).

e. Quy hoach viec s dung at ai (land uses), an nh cac vung lut

(floodplains) va giam thieu viec xay cat khu gia c va nhng khu ky nghe co

gia tr cao trong nhng vung de b lut loi. (xin xem phan 2: quy hoach & xay

dng vung bao).

f. Nghien cu thuy hoc cua lu vc (Cong viec nay la cua chuyen vien thuy

hoc (hydrologist) ch khong phai cua cac nha a ly a chat). Ban hanh cac

bien phap can ban nh bao ve rng va phu xanh mat at. Neu co the c,

xay ap a dung ma kiem soat va ieu hoa lut la muc ch chnh. Neu can,

xay cac he thong e va ng thoat nc.

II. Ve Quy Hoach & Xay Dng cho vung b bao thng xuyen:

Tu trung vao 3 iem chnh la :

n Phai lu y en v tr a ly, a hnh va cac yeu to thc a (site analysis),

chang han: nhan dang ay u a hnh a phng (o cao, o doc cua oi

nui, khoang cach ti bien / song, ni nao co the tru bao tranh lut khi hu s,

etc.). Cac nha quy hoach & xay dng cua chnh quyen khong the khong ngh

en viec phai chon v tr tranh bao lut tot nhat khi quy hoach cac khu dan c

(residential), khu hanh chanh (civic center),v.v... va lng nh kha nang anh

hng ti cong trnh (a hnh anh hng nh the nao va ngc lai, o cao

ngap lut/ mc nc toi a co the dang len, nhng cay coi quanh vung se tang

trng va anh hng ra sao en cong trnh va ngc lai; khong the quen

micro-turbulence vi tac ong cua gio va lut neu gan song hay ong trong,

etc...) ra sao trc khi cap phep xay dng. Ngay ca kien truc canh quan

(landscape architecture) cung la yeu to quan trong: chon la cay trong co sc

chu ng cao (khong de gay o), nen ta (trimming) cay ln trc mua ma

bao, nghien cu a hnh e co the tao dang (xay u at va tng chan/

retaining wall hay soundwall, trong cay co, lam he thong thoat nc /

drainage system...) sao cho va han che xoi l mat at, va han che gio bao,

va thoat nc de dang, va tao them ni tranh bao lut lai va lam ep them

canh quan.

n Phai thiet ke & ket cau vat lieu xay cat sao cho phu hp nhat, nhat la

tng va mai ch mong (footings & foundation) phu thuoc vao cau tao a

chat (soil) cua khu vc, cha ke nha ngheo th lai cang n gian. Theo toi,

nen thiet ke va ket cau n gian toi a, va phu hp tong the (integrity), va

an toan. Can lu y 4 iem chnh sau ay:

1. Xem xet ky nhng kieu dang nha nao co the chap nhan cho vung bao lut

thng xuyen ? Thiet ke mat cat (section) sao cho lc phan bo eu tren toan

bo mai, han che anh hng cua micro-turbulence hau tranh gay tai nan khi

bao lut, gio ln. Tnh cho ky cac cot chong, cac nhp ln & cac phan conson,

khoang cach (span) gia keo, cot, xa tren mai (span cang gan nhau cang

vng chac). Vat lieu phai c chon la ky e va chu am, chong tham

thau, va chu tac ong cua gach v, cay nga... Mai va tng la phan ang

lu y nhat, nhat la nhng ni chu ap lc cao. Loai shear wall My co the

dung cho Viet Nam. Chu yeu la giang sao cho tng, tran, mai va vach ngan

u chu sc gio cao, nc o xoi xa lien tuc... la bai toan kho cho nha ngheo

!

2. Nen mong & cot san (footing, foundation & framing) la viec khi au cho

xay cat nen phai bat tay trc vao viec nghien cu a hnh & a chat (soil

test/ geotechnical services), xac nh loai at hien hu e neu can th phai

nen at (compaction) va x ly thch hp qua erosion control chang han. Tm

hieu lch s ngap lut e chon cot (cot 1,2,3 hay hn na, tuy mc o ngap lut

tng ni e tnh mc ngap cho cot san, sc gio& ong at sao cho phu hp

hn vi thiet ke & ket cau). Khong the quen la at set dan n (expansive

clay) se gay hoa khi lu lut neu mong khong lam ung; hay nh viec tnh toan

he thong ket cau cot & dam li e tao o cng can thiet cho cac cong trnh

vung gio bao, lu lut. ng quen tay nghe th va lng tam nha thau la

nhng ieu khong the coi thng khi thi cong.

3. Tong the phai c sap xep hp ly sao cho gio thong thoang ch khong

nhat thiet phai "gia co ket cau" (structural reinforcement) nhng cot loi la

tang an toan nen moi sap xep khong gian (spaces) ben trong phai phu hp

ket cau va ngc lai. V du, tng lng (khong len ti tran/ ceiling, mai/ roof)

nen u cng e chu lc ch khong ch e trang tr hay la vach ngan ma thoi.

Cac khoang m (openings) nh ca so(window), ca i (door) phai c chon

la ve kch thc, trong tai va thiet ke (loai ca, khung va moi lien ket vi

tng) sao cho phu hp vi tng vung( gan bien hay tren nui cao co nhieu

gio ln, ma nhieu ), chang han: ca so m ln e ngam canh(view points)

va lay anh sang la tot nhng khi gio bao th phai giai quyet the nao cho an

toan ? Co nen dung ca chp hay lai ca truyen thong xa nay van dung ?

Tham my nhng phai an toan. ng quen chi ph phai that thap v Viet Nam

la mot nc ngheo, dan khong u an th ng tnh toan qua xa vi !

4. Quy cach (Building codes, specifications & standards, city ordinances,

etc...): Chnh quyen (Bo xay dng, cong chanh va cac hoi ky s, kien truc s)

phai cap nhat hoa (updating) tat ca quy cach xay dng mot cach chi tiet, cu

the tat ca quy nh, quy cach xay dng cho dan dung lan cong cong that chat

che e buoc tat ca moi ngi (nhat la thau & th xay) phai theo ung quy

cach, quy nh nham bao am an toan toi thieu cho moi ngi. Tat ca van

ban, tai lieu hng dan can pho bien rong rai (th vien, trng hoc, he thong

truyen thong bao ch...), giai thch ro rang, can ke e moi ngi am tng va

tuan hanh triet e. X ly nghiem ngat moi sai pham do co tnh nhng cung

phai nghiem chnh hoc hoi kinh nghiem t nhng bai hoc quy gia nay e

tranh tai pham. Kiem tra xay cat la mot cong viec khong the qua loa, t cac

moi noi (connection) vi u loai inh, vt, bu lon, keo dan..., s dung vat lieu

nao la ung, o day va o doc nao chap nhan c ? Danh muc kiem tra

phai c soan thao va in ay u cho thanh tra (inspector) e bao am viec

thi cong ung nhng quy nh can thiet ma khong phai My mi lam c ma

nc ngheo nh Viet Nam th c ...qua loa !

n Phai lu y en erosion control nhng khu vc oi nui, ven bien(nhat la

khu doc cao, dng ng, tr trui, at set dan n cao/ expansive clay); co gang

phu kn mat at bang cac loai tham thc vat, tham ch dung ba thc vat

(mulch-khong phai compost), trai a (rock blanket), hay c e hoa co dai

(wild flowers th tot hn) phu kn mat at. Can khuyen khch viec ap b

bao, trong da, phi lao, dng lieu... ven bien, can khuyen khch viec xay

tng chan (retaining wall, soundwall...) khi kha nang tai chnh cho phep. Tat

ca phai c quy hoach va thiet ke ung quy cach, tieu chuan(standards),

phai gii thieu rong rai cho dan biet cac phng thc phong bao lut sao cho

kp thi va hu hieu bang moi hnh thc thong tin tuyen truyen. Kho khan

nhat la quy hoach sao cho dan tranh c phan nao tac hai cua bao lut ma

khong anh hng en phat trien chung va s on nh cua ngi dan a

phng ch thiet ke khong phai la kho. Do o, khong the coi nhe cong tac

quy hoach, nhat la nhng vung b bao lut thng xuyen nh mien Trung.

 

Viec giam thieu thiet hai ve nha ca va cac kien truc khac do lut gay ra th

khong n gian nh bao. Cho du co xay cat kien co en au th sc nc

cung co the tan pha. Cho nen, cach tot nhat la dung quy hoach s dung at

e han che en mc toi a viec xay cat trong cac vung lut (floodplains). Neu

khong, th can phai co mot he thong ho cha nc va e ieu that kien co e

bao ve. ay, benefits/costs ratio la yeu to quyet nh, va ng nhien phai

tnh ca tangible and intangible benefits.

 

Xin lu y bai viet nay ch co tnh cach gi y, cha han la giai phap tot nhat

hay kha thi nhat v chnh ngi a phng mi am tng ay u nhng ieu

kien, yeu to & nhan to khach quan anh hng en quy hoach, kien truc, xay

dng... Ao c ln nhat cua toi la pho thong hoa moi phng thc xay cat ,

cap cu va cac bien phap phong bao lut can ban nhat en moi ngi dan,

nhat la vung b bao lut thng xuyen e ho co the t cu giup chnh ho khi

nguy bien - nh lanhng kien thc khoa hoc thng thc c ban. Cu tr la

giai phap cap thi nham xoa du nhng mat mat do thien tai nhng van e

quan trong hn la tm bien phap han che tac hai, nh cha ong ta a kho cong

ap e doc song Hong chong lu lut khi xa. o la chuyen ma chnh quyen

phai lam. T nhng kinh nghiem au thng bay lau nay dan ta van chu, hy

vong chung ta se tm c bien phap khac phuc co tnh cach lau dai hn e

ong bao mnh kho va tranh c nhng mat mat to ln. Trach nhiem cua

chnh quyen va tr thc Viet Nam la sm co cau tra li cho van e phong

bao lut sao cho hu hieu hn ch khong ch la cu tr!

 

Nguyen at (11/99)